Helps dissolve other soluble ingredients. Helps the mechanical process of cleaning teeth in mouthwashes.
Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decayand is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics (see Water fluoridation controversy).
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful topically for dental health in low dosage, chronic ingestion of fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich.
The Cosmetics Database found PEG 8 Laurate to be a moderate to high hazard, in part because of its inclusion of Lauric Acid. It notes the organ toxicity and contamination concerns associated with all PEGs, and also allergies and immunotoxicity concerns associated with its rating of Lauric Acid.
According to a study published in the International Journal of Toxicology, PEGs (including PEG 8 Laurate) can contain harmful impurities, including: Ethylene Oxide, known to increase the incidences of uterine and breast cancers and of leukemia and brain cancer, according to experimental results reported by the National Toxicology Program; 1,4-dioxane, a known carcinogen; PAHs, known to increase the risk of breast cancer; lead; iron; and arsenic (Source).
Products and formulas containing PEGs should not be used on broken or irritated skin. Although PEGs are considered safe for use topically on healthy skin, studies showed that patients suffering from severe burns were treated with PEG-based antimicrobial cream; this treatment resulted in kidney toxicity. "The PEG content of the antimicrobial cream was determined to be the causative agent. However, no evidence of systemic toxicity occurred in studies with intact skin. Because of the observation of kidney effects in burn patients, the CIR Expert Panel qualified their conclusion on the safety of the PEG ingredients to state that cosmetic formulations containing these ingredients should not be used on damaged skin" (CosmeticsInfo.org).
The takeaway. Silicon dioxide exists naturally within the earth and our bodies. There isn't yet evidence to suggest it's dangerous to ingest as a food additive, but more research is needed on what role it plays in the body. Chronic inhalation of silica dust can lead to lung disease.
Common side effects of sodium_bicarbonate include:
Aggravated congestive heart failure (CHF)
High blood sodium levels
Low blood calcium levels
Low blood potassium levels
Muscle spasms (associated with low calcium levels)
Excess fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
The Cosmetics Database finds sodium lauroyl sarcosinate to be a moderate hazard ingredient, primarily because of its potential to be contaminated with nitrosamine (a known carcinogen) and because of its classification as a penetration enhancer, which may alter skin structure and allow other chemicals to penetrate deeper into the skin. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate should not be used in cosmetics and personal care products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed (CosmeticsInfo.org).
Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate is not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful, and has a low oral toxicity. It is not found to be mutagenic, irritating or sensitizing, although as stated above, it may enhance the penetration of other ingredients through the skin.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regards SLS as safe as a food additive.
Regarding its use in cosmetics and body products, the safety assessment study of SLS, published in 1983 in the International Journal of Toxicology (the most recent assessment), found that it’s not harmful if used briefly and rinsed from the skin, as with shampoos and soaps.
The report says that products that stay on the skin longer shouldn’t exceed 1 percent concentration of SLS.
However, the same assessment did suggest some possible, albeit minimal, risk to humans using SLS. For example, some tests found that continuous skin exposure to SLS could cause mild to moderate irritation in animals.
Nevertheless, the assessment concluded that SLS is safe in formulations used in cosmetics and personal care products. Because many of these products are designed to be rinsed off after short applications, the risks are minimal.
According to most research, SLS is an irritant but not a carcinogen. Studies have shown no link between the use of SLS and increased cancer risk.
According to a 2015 study, SLS is safe for use in household cleaning products.
In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) originally classified saccharin in Group 2B ("possibly carcinogenic to humans") based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 ("not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity to humans") upon review of the subsequent research.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional value. It is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes.
People with sulfonamide allergies can experience allergic reactions to saccharin, as it is a sulfonamide derivative and can cross-react. Saccharin in toothpaste can cause burning sensations, swelling, and rashes of the mouth and lips in sensitive individuals.