Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium-strength surfactant also used in bath products like hand soaps. It is also used in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent and thickener, and to reduce irritation purely ionic surfactants would cause. It also serves as an antistatic agent in hair conditioners, which most often does not irritate skin or mucous membranes. However, some studies indicate it is an allergen.
CAPB has been claimed to cause allergic reactions in some users, but a controlled pilot study has found that these cases may represent irritant reactions rather than true allergic reactions. Furthermore, results of human studies have shown that CAPB has a low sensitizing potential if impurities with amidoamine (AA) and dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) are low and tightly controlled. Other studies have concluded that most apparent allergic reactions to CAPB are more likely due to amidoamine. Cocamidopropyl betaine was voted 2004 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decayand is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics (see Water fluoridation controversy).
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful topically for dental health in low dosage, chronic ingestion of fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycerin is mildly antimicrobial and antiviral and is an FDA approved treatment for wounds. The Red Cross reports that an 85% solution of glycerin shows bactericidal and antiviral effects, and wounds treated with glycerin show reduced inflammation after roughly 2 hours. Due to this it is used widely in wound care products, including glycerin based hydrogel sheets for burns and other wound care. It is approved for all types of wound care except third degree burns, and is used to package donor skin used in skin grafts. There is no topical treatment approved for third degree burns, and so this limitation is not exclusive to glycerin.
Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant.
In toothpastes Glycerol holds onto water and prevents the toothpaste from drying out in the tube, and also prevents dryness in the mouth during brushing.
It can help reduce bacterial activity by reducing the available water activity and therefore has a protective action against tooth decay. Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Glycerin as ingredient of foods,cosmetic products ,toothpaste and ...may cause : Upset stomach, Stomach cramps, Gas, Diarrhea, Burning, Rectal irritation.
Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Hydrated silica is listed by the US Food and Drug Administration as "Generally Recognized as Safe", however one drawback of abrasives in toothpaste is that they may make some people's teeth sensitive, especially if they brush very hard and do not brush with a soft-bristled toothbrush. The dentin and the pulp that lie beneath the enamel are sensitive, says the American Dental Association (ADA), so that why it's key to have a strong enamel.
The Cosmetics Database found PEG 8 Laurate to be a moderate to high hazard, in part because of its inclusion of Lauric Acid. It notes the organ toxicity and contamination concerns associated with all PEGs, and also allergies and immunotoxicity concerns associated with its rating of Lauric Acid.
According to a study published in the International Journal of Toxicology, PEGs (including PEG 8 Laurate) can contain harmful impurities, including: Ethylene Oxide, known to increase the incidences of uterine and breast cancers and of leukemia and brain cancer, according to experimental results reported by the National Toxicology Program; 1,4-dioxane, a known carcinogen; PAHs, known to increase the risk of breast cancer; lead; iron; and arsenic (Source).
Products and formulas containing PEGs should not be used on broken or irritated skin. Although PEGs are considered safe for use topically on healthy skin, studies showed that patients suffering from severe burns were treated with PEG-based antimicrobial cream; this treatment resulted in kidney toxicity. "The PEG content of the antimicrobial cream was determined to be the causative agent. However, no evidence of systemic toxicity occurred in studies with intact skin. Because of the observation of kidney effects in burn patients, the CIR Expert Panel qualified their conclusion on the safety of the PEG ingredients to state that cosmetic formulations containing these ingredients should not be used on damaged skin" (CosmeticsInfo.org).
Food-grade sodium phosphate is categorized by the FDA as GRAS, which means “generally recognized as safe.” This may be because the amount of sodium phosphate added to processed food, is relatively low.
Side effects from an overdose of sodium phosphate may include:
reduced urine output
Uncommon side effects(may affect up to 1 in 100 people): eye swelling, eye pain, itchy eye, eye redness, increased tear production. Or, reactions in other parts of your body: Uncommon side effects (may affect up to 1 in 100 people): skin inflammation.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regards SLS as safe as a food additive.
Regarding its use in cosmetics and body products, the safety assessment study of SLS, published in 1983 in the International Journal of Toxicology (the most recent assessment), found that it’s not harmful if used briefly and rinsed from the skin, as with shampoos and soaps.
The report says that products that stay on the skin longer shouldn’t exceed 1 percent concentration of SLS.
However, the same assessment did suggest some possible, albeit minimal, risk to humans using SLS. For example, some tests found that continuous skin exposure to SLS could cause mild to moderate irritation in animals.
Nevertheless, the assessment concluded that SLS is safe in formulations used in cosmetics and personal care products. Because many of these products are designed to be rinsed off after short applications, the risks are minimal.
According to most research, SLS is an irritant but not a carcinogen. Studies have shown no link between the use of SLS and increased cancer risk.
According to a 2015 study, SLS is safe for use in household cleaning products.
In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) originally classified saccharin in Group 2B ("possibly carcinogenic to humans") based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 ("not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity to humans") upon review of the subsequent research.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional value. It is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes.
People with sulfonamide allergies can experience allergic reactions to saccharin, as it is a sulfonamide derivative and can cross-react. Saccharin in toothpaste can cause burning sensations, swelling, and rashes of the mouth and lips in sensitive individuals.
Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; skin contact; eye contact.
Inhalation: At high concentrations: can irritate the nose and throat.
Skin Contact: May cause mild irritation.
Eye Contact: May cause slight irritation as a "foreign object". Tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.
Ingestion: Not harmful.
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Conclusions cannot be drawn from the limited studies available.
Carcinogenicity: Possible carcinogen. May cause cancer based on animal information. Has been associated with: lung cancer.