Helps dissolve other soluble ingredients. Helps the mechanical process of cleaning teeth in mouthwashes.
Benzyl alcohol is used as a general solvent for inks, waxes, shellacs, paints, lacquers, and epoxy resin coatings. Thus it can be used in paint strippers, especially when combined with compatible viscosity enhancers to encourage the mixture to cling to painted surfaces.
It oxidizes rapidly in healthy individuals to benzoic acid, conjugated with glycine in the liver, and excreted as hippuric acid. Very high concentrations can result in toxic effects including respiratory failure, vasodilation, hypotension, convulsions, and paralysis. Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. Benzyl alcohol is severely toxic and highly irritating to the eye.Pure benzyl alcohol produces corneal necrosis. Benzyl alcohol is not considered to be a carcinogen, and no data are available regarding teratogenic or reproductive effects.
Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decayand is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics (see Water fluoridation controversy).
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful topically for dental health in low dosage, chronic ingestion of fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound. Glycerin is mildly antimicrobial and antiviral and is an FDA approved treatment for wounds. The Red Cross reports that an 85% solution of glycerin shows bactericidal and antiviral effects, and wounds treated with glycerin show reduced inflammation after roughly 2 hours. Due to this it is used widely in wound care products, including glycerin based hydrogel sheets for burns and other wound care. It is approved for all types of wound care except third degree burns, and is used to package donor skin used in skin grafts. There is no topical treatment approved for third degree burns, and so this limitation is not exclusive to glycerin. Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant. In toothpastes Glycerol holds onto water and prevents the toothpaste from drying out in the tube, and also prevents dryness in the mouth during brushing. It can help reduce bacterial activity by reducing the available water activity and therefore has a protective action against tooth decay. Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Glycerin as ingredient of foods,cosmetic products ,toothpaste and ...may cause : Upset stomach, Stomach cramps, Gas, Diarrhea, Burning, Rectal irritation. Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Hydrated silica is listed by the US Food and Drug Administration as "Generally Recognized as Safe", however one drawback of abrasives in toothpaste is that they may make some people's teeth sensitive, especially if they brush very hard and do not brush with a soft-bristled toothbrush. The dentin and the pulp that lie beneath the enamel are sensitive, says the American Dental Association (ADA), so that why it's key to have a strong enamel.
Rebaudioside A has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status in the U.S. for use as a sweetener for foods. Stevioside has been safely used in research in doses of up to 1500 mg daily for 2 years. Some people who take stevia or stevioside can experience bloating or nausea.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regards SLS as safe as a food additive. Regarding its use in cosmetics and body products, the safety assessment study of SLS, published in 1983 in the International Journal of Toxicology (the most recent assessment), found that it’s not harmful if used briefly and rinsed from the skin, as with shampoos and soaps. The report says that products that stay on the skin longer shouldn’t exceed 1 percent concentration of SLS. However, the same assessment did suggest some possible, albeit minimal, risk to humans using SLS. For example, some tests found that continuous skin exposure to SLS could cause mild to moderate irritation in animals. Nevertheless, the assessment concluded that SLS is safe in formulations used in cosmetics and personal care products. Because many of these products are designed to be rinsed off after short applications, the risks are minimal. According to most research, SLS is an irritant but not a carcinogen. Studies have shown no link between the use of SLS and increased cancer risk. According to a 2015 study, SLS is safe for use in household cleaning products.
Ingesting large amounts of sorbitol can lead to abdominal pain, flatulence, and mild to severe diarrhea. Habitual sorbitol consumption of over 20 grams (0.7 oz) per day as sugar-free gum has led to severe diarrhea, causing unintended weight loss or even requiring hospitalization. In early studies, a dose of 25g of sorbitol, eaten through the day, produced a laxative effect in only 5% of individuals. As a result of the large molecular weight of sorbitol, when large amounts of sorbitol are ingested, only a small amount of sorbitol is absorbed in the small intestine, and most of the sorbitol enters the colon, with consequent gastrointestinal effects.
For most people, eating foods that contain xanthan gum appears to be completely safe. While many foods contain it, it only makes up about 0.05–0.3% of a food product. Moreover, a typical person consumes less than 1 gram of xanthan gum per day. Amounts 20 times that have been proven to be safe. In fact, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives assigned it an acceptable daily intake of “not specified.” It gives this designation when food additives have a very low toxicity, and levels in foods are so small that they do not pose a health hazard. But people should avoid inhaling xanthan gum. Workers who handled it in powder form were found to have flu-like symptoms and nose and throat irritation.
So even though you may eat many foods containing it, your intake is so small that you’re unlikely to experience either benefits or negative side effects.
Xylitol is generally well tolerated, but some people experience digestive side effects when they consume too much. The sugar alcohols can pull water into your intestine or get fermented by gut bacteria. This can lead to gas, bloating and diarrhea.