Helps dissolve other soluble ingredients. Helps the mechanical process of cleaning teeth in mouthwashes.
Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium-strength surfactant also used in bath products like hand soaps. It is also used in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent and thickener, and to reduce irritation purely ionic surfactants would cause. It also serves as an antistatic agent in hair conditioners, which most often does not irritate skin or mucous membranes. However, some studies indicate it is an allergen.
CAPB has been claimed to cause allergic reactions in some users, but a controlled pilot study has found that these cases may represent irritant reactions rather than true allergic reactions. Furthermore, results of human studies have shown that CAPB has a low sensitizing potential if impurities with amidoamine (AA) and dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) are low and tightly controlled. Other studies have concluded that most apparent allergic reactions to CAPB are more likely due to amidoamine. Cocamidopropyl betaine was voted 2004 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decayand is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics (see Water fluoridation controversy).
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful topically for dental health in low dosage, chronic ingestion of fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycerin is mildly antimicrobial and antiviral and is an FDA approved treatment for wounds. The Red Cross reports that an 85% solution of glycerin shows bactericidal and antiviral effects, and wounds treated with glycerin show reduced inflammation after roughly 2 hours. Due to this it is used widely in wound care products, including glycerin based hydrogel sheets for burns and other wound care. It is approved for all types of wound care except third degree burns, and is used to package donor skin used in skin grafts. There is no topical treatment approved for third degree burns, and so this limitation is not exclusive to glycerin.
Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant.
In toothpastes Glycerol holds onto water and prevents the toothpaste from drying out in the tube, and also prevents dryness in the mouth during brushing.
It can help reduce bacterial activity by reducing the available water activity and therefore has a protective action against tooth decay. Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Glycerin as ingredient of foods,cosmetic products ,toothpaste and ...may cause : Upset stomach, Stomach cramps, Gas, Diarrhea, Burning, Rectal irritation.
Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
Limonene is considered safe for humans with little risk of side effects. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes limonene as a safe food additive and flavoring .
However, when applied directly to the skin, limonene may cause irritation in some people, so caution should be used when handling its essential oil .
Limonene is sometimes taken as a concentrated supplement. Because of the way your body breaks it down, it’s likely safe consumed in this form. That said, human research on these supplements is lacking .
Notably, high-dose supplements may cause side effects in some people. What’s more, insufficient evidence exists to determine whether limonene supplements are acceptable for pregnant or breastfeeding women.
It’s best to consult your healthcare practitioner before taking limonene supplements, especially if you’re taking medications, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have a medical condition.
Skin Cancer: Applying personal care product containing parabens—especially methylparaben—can lead to UV-induced damage of skin cells and disruption of cell proliferation (cell growth rate). Daily application, in particular, can lead to increased concentrations of methylparaben because it is not completely metabolized.
Overdosage leads to irritation of the oral mucosa. In especially sensitive persons, even standard doses of olaflur can cause irritation.
Potential side effects of Solubilizer Polysorbate 20 include skin irritation. In the event of an allergic reaction, discontinue use of the product and see a doctor, pharmacist, or allergist immediately for a health assessment and appropriate remedial action.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves use of polysorbate 20 as a synthetic flavoring substances at specified concentrations and formulations. The Cosmetics Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that polysorbate 20 is safe for use in cosmetic formulations.
Inhaling Potassium Hydroxide can irritate the lungs. Higher exposures may cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency. Exposure to Potassium Hydroxide can cause headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
Potassium hydroxide and its solutions are severe irritants to skin and other tissue.
Generally, parabens don't irritate the skin or cause allergy. Other research indicates that parabens are safe as used in cosmetics and preferred since they are gentle, non-sensitizing, and highly effective.
A number of commonly used parabens have had the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) classification since the early 1970s. The GRAS designation means the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use. Other examples of compounds that are considered GRAS include vitamin A, wheat starch and sugar.
FDA also participates on the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), an independent panel of medical and scientific experts that meets quarterly to assess the safety of cosmetic ingredients based on data in the published literature, as well as data voluntarily provided by the cosmetics industry. FDA takes the results of CIR reviews into consideration when conducting a safety assessment.
In 1984, CIR reviewed the safety of parabens used in cosmetics and concluded that they were safe, even in extremely large doses. Typically parabens are used at levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 percent, and the CIR concluded they were safe for use in cosmetics at levels up to 25 percent.
In 2012, the CIR reopened its safety report on parabens to consider all new data. As it did in 1984, the expert panel reaffirmed the safety of cosmetic products in which parabens preservatives are used.
The takeaway. Silicon dioxide exists naturally within the earth and our bodies. There isn't yet evidence to suggest it's dangerous to ingest as a food additive, but more research is needed on what role it plays in the body. Chronic inhalation of silica dust can lead to lung disease.
In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) originally classified saccharin in Group 2B ("possibly carcinogenic to humans") based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 ("not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity to humans") upon review of the subsequent research.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional value. It is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes.
People with sulfonamide allergies can experience allergic reactions to saccharin, as it is a sulfonamide derivative and can cross-react. Saccharin in toothpaste can cause burning sensations, swelling, and rashes of the mouth and lips in sensitive individuals.
Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; skin contact; eye contact.
Inhalation: At high concentrations: can irritate the nose and throat.
Skin Contact: May cause mild irritation.
Eye Contact: May cause slight irritation as a "foreign object". Tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.
Ingestion: Not harmful.
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Conclusions cannot be drawn from the limited studies available.
Carcinogenicity: Possible carcinogen. May cause cancer based on animal information. Has been associated with: lung cancer.
Xylitol is generally well tolerated, but some people experience digestive side effects when they consume too much. The sugar alcohols can pull water into your intestine or get fermented by gut bacteria. This can lead to gas, bloating and diarrhea.