Helps dissolve other soluble ingredients. Helps the mechanical process of cleaning teeth in mouthwashes.
A chemical compound which adds odours to dental products
Bromelain is a group of enzymes found in the fruit and stem of the pineapple plant. Pineapple is native to the Americas but is now grown throughout the world in tropical and subtropical regions. Historically, natives of Central and South America used pineapple for a variety of ailments, such as digestive disorders.
Bromelain is promoted as a dietary supplement for reducing pain and swelling, especially of the nose and sinuses, gums, and other body parts after surgery or injury. It is also promoted for osteoarthritis, cancer, digestive problems, and muscle soreness. Topical bromelain is promoted for burns.
Few side effects of bromelain have been reported in studies. The most commonly reported side effects have been stomach upset and diarrhea.
Allergic reactions may occur in individuals who are sensitive or allergic to pineapples or who have other allergies.
Little is known about whether it’s safe to use bromelain during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.
Bromelain may interact with some medicines, such as the antibiotic amoxicillin. If you take medicines, talk to your health care provider before taking bromelain.
Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium-strength surfactant also used in bath products like hand soaps. It is also used in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent and thickener, and to reduce irritation purely ionic surfactants would cause. It also serves as an antistatic agent in hair conditioners, which most often does not irritate skin or mucous membranes. However, some studies indicate it is an allergen.
CAPB has been claimed to cause allergic reactions in some users, but a controlled pilot study has found that these cases may represent irritant reactions rather than true allergic reactions. Furthermore, results of human studies have shown that CAPB has a low sensitizing potential if impurities with amidoamine (AA) and dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) are low and tightly controlled. Other studies have concluded that most apparent allergic reactions to CAPB are more likely due to amidoamine. Cocamidopropyl betaine was voted 2004 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycerin is mildly antimicrobial and antiviral and is an FDA approved treatment for wounds. The Red Cross reports that an 85% solution of glycerin shows bactericidal and antiviral effects, and wounds treated with glycerin show reduced inflammation after roughly 2 hours. Due to this it is used widely in wound care products, including glycerin based hydrogel sheets for burns and other wound care. It is approved for all types of wound care except third degree burns, and is used to package donor skin used in skin grafts. There is no topical treatment approved for third degree burns, and so this limitation is not exclusive to glycerin.
Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant.
In toothpastes Glycerol holds onto water and prevents the toothpaste from drying out in the tube, and also prevents dryness in the mouth during brushing.
It can help reduce bacterial activity by reducing the available water activity and therefore has a protective action against tooth decay. Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Glycerin as ingredient of foods,cosmetic products ,toothpaste and ...may cause : Upset stomach, Stomach cramps, Gas, Diarrhea, Burning, Rectal irritation.
Glycerin does not damage gums or tooth enamel.
Limonene is considered safe for humans with little risk of side effects. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes limonene as a safe food additive and flavoring .
However, when applied directly to the skin, limonene may cause irritation in some people, so caution should be used when handling its essential oil .
Limonene is sometimes taken as a concentrated supplement. Because of the way your body breaks it down, it’s likely safe consumed in this form. That said, human research on these supplements is lacking .
Notably, high-dose supplements may cause side effects in some people. What’s more, insufficient evidence exists to determine whether limonene supplements are acceptable for pregnant or breastfeeding women.
It’s best to consult your healthcare practitioner before taking limonene supplements, especially if you’re taking medications, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have a medical condition.
Skin Cancer: Applying personal care product containing parabens—especially methylparaben—can lead to UV-induced damage of skin cells and disruption of cell proliferation (cell growth rate). Daily application, in particular, can lead to increased concentrations of methylparaben because it is not completely metabolized.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone did not irritate or induce sensitization when applied to the skin of volunteers, and was not irritant to the eyes of rabbits. It was of low acute toxicity when administered by the intravenous route in humans or by the oral and intravenous routes in various species of laboratory animals.
Generally, parabens don't irritate the skin or cause allergy. Other research indicates that parabens are safe as used in cosmetics and preferred since they are gentle, non-sensitizing, and highly effective.
A number of commonly used parabens have had the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) classification since the early 1970s. The GRAS designation means the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use. Other examples of compounds that are considered GRAS include vitamin A, wheat starch and sugar.
FDA also participates on the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), an independent panel of medical and scientific experts that meets quarterly to assess the safety of cosmetic ingredients based on data in the published literature, as well as data voluntarily provided by the cosmetics industry. FDA takes the results of CIR reviews into consideration when conducting a safety assessment.
In 1984, CIR reviewed the safety of parabens used in cosmetics and concluded that they were safe, even in extremely large doses. Typically parabens are used at levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 percent, and the CIR concluded they were safe for use in cosmetics at levels up to 25 percent.
In 2012, the CIR reopened its safety report on parabens to consider all new data. As it did in 1984, the expert panel reaffirmed the safety of cosmetic products in which parabens preservatives are used.
The takeaway. Silicon dioxide exists naturally within the earth and our bodies. There isn't yet evidence to suggest it's dangerous to ingest as a food additive, but more research is needed on what role it plays in the body. Chronic inhalation of silica dust can lead to lung disease.
In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) originally classified saccharin in Group 2B ("possibly carcinogenic to humans") based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 ("not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity to humans") upon review of the subsequent research.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional value. It is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes.
People with sulfonamide allergies can experience allergic reactions to saccharin, as it is a sulfonamide derivative and can cross-react. Saccharin in toothpaste can cause burning sensations, swelling, and rashes of the mouth and lips in sensitive individuals.
Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; skin contact; eye contact.
Inhalation: At high concentrations: can irritate the nose and throat.
Skin Contact: May cause mild irritation.
Eye Contact: May cause slight irritation as a "foreign object". Tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.
Ingestion: Not harmful.
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Conclusions cannot be drawn from the limited studies available.
Carcinogenicity: Possible carcinogen. May cause cancer based on animal information. Has been associated with: lung cancer.
Although tocopheryrl acetate is thought to be relatively safe, there are some potential risks, particularly if the recommended dosage is exceeded—the recommended dietary allowance is 15 milligrams (mg) or 22.4 internal units (IU). In fact, taking too much vitamin E could lead to toxicity.5
Because vitamin E is fat soluble, the body cannot get rid of excessive amounts in the urine. Some studies have shown an increase in mortality rate among people taking large doses of vitamin E, especially in people with multiple medical problems. Other possible side effects include breast tenderness, gonadal dysfunction, abdominal pain, blood pressure elevation, or diarrhea.
According to the Memorial Slone Kettering Cancer Center, symptoms of vitamin E toxicity from long-term use of more than 400–800 IU per day may include:
- Blurred vision
- Thrombophlebitis (an inflammation of the vein due to a blood clot)
Vitamin E supplements may also increase the risk of having a stroke. The reason tocopheryl acetate may increase the risk of a stroke is due to its anti-blood-clotting side effects.
Skin care products with tocopheryl acetate may cause a local skin reaction. Symptoms of an allergic reaction of the skin include reddening or a rash in the area that the cream or ointment was applied.
For most people, eating foods that contain xanthan gum appears to be completely safe.
While many foods contain it, it only makes up about 0.05–0.3% of a food product.
Moreover, a typical person consumes less than 1 gram of xanthan gum per day. Amounts 20 times that have been proven to be safe.
In fact, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives assigned it an acceptable daily intake of “not specified.” It gives this designation when food additives have a very low toxicity, and levels in foods are so small that they do not pose a health hazard.
But people should avoid inhaling xanthan gum. Workers who handled it in powder form were found to have flu-like symptoms and nose and throat irritation.
So even though you may eat many foods containing it, your intake is so small that you’re unlikely to experience either benefits or negative side effects.
Xylitol is generally well tolerated, but some people experience digestive side effects when they consume too much. The sugar alcohols can pull water into your intestine or get fermented by gut bacteria. This can lead to gas, bloating and diarrhea.