Helps dissolve other soluble ingredients. Helps the mechanical process of cleaning teeth in mouthwashes.
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice in food for human consumption.
Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium-strength surfactant also used in bath products like hand soaps. It is also used in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent and thickener, and to reduce irritation purely ionic surfactants would cause. It also serves as an antistatic agent in hair conditioners, which most often does not irritate skin or mucous membranes. However, some studies indicate it is an allergen.
CAPB has been claimed to cause allergic reactions in some users, but a controlled pilot study has found that these cases may represent irritant reactions rather than true allergic reactions. Furthermore, results of human studies have shown that CAPB has a low sensitizing potential if impurities with amidoamine (AA) and dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) are low and tightly controlled. Other studies have concluded that most apparent allergic reactions to CAPB are more likely due to amidoamine. Cocamidopropyl betaine was voted 2004 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decayand is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics (see Water fluoridation controversy).
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful topically for dental health in low dosage, chronic ingestion of fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich.
Hydrated silica is listed by the US Food and Drug Administration as "Generally Recognized as Safe", however one drawback of abrasives in toothpaste is that they may make some people's teeth sensitive, especially if they brush very hard and do not brush with a soft-bristled toothbrush. The dentin and the pulp that lie beneath the enamel are sensitive, says the American Dental Association (ADA), so that why it's key to have a strong enamel.
The Cosmetics Database finds PEG 12 Dimethicone to be a moderate hazard (depending on usage) and notes contamination and toxicity concerns.
According to a study published in the International Journal of Toxicology, PEGs (including PEG 12 Dimethicone) can contain harmful impurities, including: Ethylene Oxide, known to increase the incidences of uterine and breast cancers and of leukemia and brain cancer, according to experimental results reported by the National Toxicology Program; 1,4-dioxane, a known carcinogen; PAHs, known to increase the risk of breast cancer; lead; iron; and arsenic (Source).
Products and formulas containing PEGs should not be used on broken or irritated skin. Although PEGs are considered safe for use topically on healthy skin, studies showed that patients suffering from severe burns were treated with PEG-based antimicrobial cream; this treatment resulted in kidney toxicity. "The PEG content of the antimicrobial cream was determined to be the causative agent. However, no evidence of systemic toxicity occurred in studies with intact skin. Because of the observation of kidney effects in burn patients, the CIR Expert Panel qualified their conclusion on the safety of the PEG ingredients to state that cosmetic formulations containing these ingredients should not be used on damaged skin" (CosmeticsInfo.org).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regards SLS as safe as a food additive.
Regarding its use in cosmetics and body products, the safety assessment study of SLS, published in 1983 in the International Journal of Toxicology (the most recent assessment), found that it’s not harmful if used briefly and rinsed from the skin, as with shampoos and soaps.
The report says that products that stay on the skin longer shouldn’t exceed 1 percent concentration of SLS.
However, the same assessment did suggest some possible, albeit minimal, risk to humans using SLS. For example, some tests found that continuous skin exposure to SLS could cause mild to moderate irritation in animals.
Nevertheless, the assessment concluded that SLS is safe in formulations used in cosmetics and personal care products. Because many of these products are designed to be rinsed off after short applications, the risks are minimal.
According to most research, SLS is an irritant but not a carcinogen. Studies have shown no link between the use of SLS and increased cancer risk.
According to a 2015 study, SLS is safe for use in household cleaning products.
In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) originally classified saccharin in Group 2B ("possibly carcinogenic to humans") based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 ("not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity to humans") upon review of the subsequent research.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional value. It is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes.
People with sulfonamide allergies can experience allergic reactions to saccharin, as it is a sulfonamide derivative and can cross-react. Saccharin in toothpaste can cause burning sensations, swelling, and rashes of the mouth and lips in sensitive individuals.
Ingesting large amounts of sorbitol can lead to abdominal pain, flatulence, and mild to severe diarrhea. Habitual sorbitol consumption of over 20 grams (0.7 oz) per day as sugar-free gum has led to severe diarrhea, causing unintended weight loss or even requiring hospitalization. In early studies, a dose of 25g of sorbitol, eaten through the day, produced a laxative effect in only 5% of individuals. As a result of the large molecular weight of sorbitol, when large amounts of sorbitol are ingested, only a small amount of sorbitol is absorbed in the small intestine, and most of the sorbitol enters the colon, with consequent gastrointestinal effects.
Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; skin contact; eye contact.
Inhalation: At high concentrations: can irritate the nose and throat.
Skin Contact: May cause mild irritation.
Eye Contact: May cause slight irritation as a "foreign object". Tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.
Ingestion: Not harmful.
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Conclusions cannot be drawn from the limited studies available.
Carcinogenicity: Possible carcinogen. May cause cancer based on animal information. Has been associated with: lung cancer.
For most people, eating foods that contain xanthan gum appears to be completely safe.
While many foods contain it, it only makes up about 0.05–0.3% of a food product.
Moreover, a typical person consumes less than 1 gram of xanthan gum per day. Amounts 20 times that have been proven to be safe.
In fact, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives assigned it an acceptable daily intake of “not specified.” It gives this designation when food additives have a very low toxicity, and levels in foods are so small that they do not pose a health hazard.
But people should avoid inhaling xanthan gum. Workers who handled it in powder form were found to have flu-like symptoms and nose and throat irritation.
So even though you may eat many foods containing it, your intake is so small that you’re unlikely to experience either benefits or negative side effects.