BHT or butyl hydroxytoluene is a fat soluble synthetic compound which is commonly used to preserve foods and cosmetics to slow down the autoxidation rate of ingredients in a product that can cause changes in the taste or colour. As such, it is primarily used to prevent fats in foods from becoming rancid – but it is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals ,dental products, jet fuels, rubber, petroleum products, electrical transformer oil, and embalming fluid.
Accumulation of butylated hydroxytoluene ,over time in the body has a toxic impact on the lungs, liver and kidneys and can be a cause of Cancer , so it comes down to us to check ingredients of foods and cosmetics, however normal use of oral care products, such as toothpaste, will not exceed the limit values for BHT.
It is a chemical compound, an insoluble calcium salt containing the pyrophosphate anion. There are a number of forms reported: an anhydrous form, a dihydrate, Ca2P2O7·2H2O and a tetrahydrate, Ca2P2O7·4H2O. Deposition of dihydrate crystals in cartilage are responsible for the severe joint pain in cases of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudo gout) whose symptoms are similar to those of gout. Ca2P2O7 is commonly used as a mild abrasive agent in toothpastes, because of its insolubility and nonreactivity toward fluoride.
SAPP is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice and can be used as a color or coloring adjunct, dough strengthener, emulsifier or emulsifier salt, flavoring agent or adjuvant, flour treating agent, formulation aid, leavening agent, oxidizing or reducing agent, and sequestrant in food.
Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decayand is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics (see Water fluoridation controversy).
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful topically for dental health in low dosage, chronic ingestion of fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich.
Redness, stinging, or irritation at the application site may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, contact your doctor or pharmacist promptly.
A very serious allergic reaction to this product is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone did not irritate or induce sensitization when applied to the skin of volunteers, and was not irritant to the eyes of rabbits. It was of low acute toxicity when administered by the intravenous route in humans or by the oral and intravenous routes in various species of laboratory animals.
Propylene glycol is “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
In the US, it can be used as a direct and indirect food additive. In Europe, it is only allowed to be used in food as a solvent for colors, emulsifiers, antioxidants and enzymes, with up to 0.45 grams per pound (1 gram/kg) allowed in the final food product.
The World Health Organization recommends a maximum intake of 11.4 mg of propylene glycol per pound of body weight (25 mg/kg) per day. The estimated exposure to propylene glycol through foods in the US is 15 mg per pound (34 mg/kg) per day.
In comparison, one person who developed symptoms of toxicity was receiving 213 grams of propylene glycol per day. For a 120-pound (60-kg) adult, that is over 100 times what is found in the average diet .
There is only one documented case of toxicity caused by food.
A man drank very large amounts of cinnamon whiskey containing propylene glycol and was found unconscious. While his symptoms were also due to the alcohol, some could be attributed to the propylene glycol.
Overall, apart from people with allergies and one case of excessive consumption, there have been no other reported cases of negative or toxic effects of propylene glycol in foods.
However, as current intakes are estimated to be above the recommended level, it may be wise to reduce dietary sources where you can, especially as the primary sources are highly processed foods.
The takeaway. Silicon dioxide exists naturally within the earth and our bodies. There isn't yet evidence to suggest it's dangerous to ingest as a food additive, but more research is needed on what role it plays in the body. Chronic inhalation of silica dust can lead to lung disease.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regards SLS as safe as a food additive.
Regarding its use in cosmetics and body products, the safety assessment study of SLS, published in 1983 in the International Journal of Toxicology (the most recent assessment), found that it’s not harmful if used briefly and rinsed from the skin, as with shampoos and soaps.
The report says that products that stay on the skin longer shouldn’t exceed 1 percent concentration of SLS.
However, the same assessment did suggest some possible, albeit minimal, risk to humans using SLS. For example, some tests found that continuous skin exposure to SLS could cause mild to moderate irritation in animals.
Nevertheless, the assessment concluded that SLS is safe in formulations used in cosmetics and personal care products. Because many of these products are designed to be rinsed off after short applications, the risks are minimal.
According to most research, SLS is an irritant but not a carcinogen. Studies have shown no link between the use of SLS and increased cancer risk.
According to a 2015 study, SLS is safe for use in household cleaning products.
In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) originally classified saccharin in Group 2B ("possibly carcinogenic to humans") based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 ("not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity to humans") upon review of the subsequent research.
Saccharin has no food energy and no nutritional value. It is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes.
People with sulfonamide allergies can experience allergic reactions to saccharin, as it is a sulfonamide derivative and can cross-react. Saccharin in toothpaste can cause burning sensations, swelling, and rashes of the mouth and lips in sensitive individuals.
Some of the most commonly reported adverse effects include:
Seizures, dizziness, and migraines.
Blood sugar increases and weight gain.